SOUTH AMERICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SUMMIT (Gipfeltreffen lateinamerikanischer und arabischer Staaten)
BRASÍLIA DECLARATION (Die Abschlusserklärung von Brasilia)
Am 10. und 11. Mai fand in der brasilianischen Hauptstadt Brasilia ein historisches Treffen statt: Vertreter aus 21 Migliedsstaaten der Arabischen Liga und der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde sowie Vertreter aus zwölf lateinamerikanischen Staaten - darunter auch Staats- und Regierungschefs - trafen sich zu einem zweitägigen Gipfel, um über Fragen der Annäherungen der beiden entfernten Regionen zu beraten. "Wir stehen vor einer historischen Chance, die Wegmarken für eine starke Zusammenarbeit zwischen Südamerika und der arabischen Welt zu setzen", sagte Brasiliens Präsident Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva in seiner Eröffnungsrede. Ziel des Treffens ist es, das gesamte Spektrum der ökonomischen, kulturellen und politischen Beziehungen zwischen den beiden Regionen zu verbessern.
Das Treffen wird in Washington und in Israel nicht gern gesehen, zumal absehbar war, dass die Gipfelteilnehmer sich in klaren Worten gegen die israelische Besatzungspolitik und generell für das Widerstandsrecht der Nationen gegen ausländische Besatzung aussprechen würde. Von den arabischen Staaten fehlten die den USA besonders verpflichteten Regime Ägyptens, Marokkos und Saudi-Arabiens, während der irakische Interimspräsident es sich nehmen ließ, an dem Gipfel teilzunehmen.
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir die Abschlusserklärung des Gipfeltreffens im englischen Original (eine deutsche Übersetzung liegt unseres Wissens bislang nicht vor). In einem Artikel aus der Tageszeitung "junge Welt", den wir ebenfalls einleitend dokumentieren, werden aber die wichtigsten Punkte der Erklärung zusammengefasst.
Protektionismus im Visier
Von Wolfgang Pomrehn
»Die Herausforderung ist, die Karte der Weltwirtschaft und des internationalen Handels neu zu zeichnen.« Mit diesen markigen Worten eröffnete Brasiliens Präsident Luiz Inácio »Lula« da Silva am Dienstag den ersten arabisch-südamerikanischen Gipfel und erntete stürmischen Applaus. 22 arabische und zwölf lateinamerikanische Staaten hatten hochrangige Delegationen geschickt, viele waren durch ihre Staats- bzw. Regierungschefs vertreten. Das zweitägige Treffen wurde gemeinsam von Lula und dem algerischen Präsidenten Abdelaziz Bouteflika, geleitet, der auch die Arabische Liga vertrat. Viele arabische Regierungen hatten allerdings nur Minister geschickt, während der Irak durch seinen Präsidenten von Besatzers Gnaden, Jalal Talabani, vertreten war. Arabische Diplomaten erzählten Nachrichtenagenturen in Brasilia, daß die USA massiven Druck ausgeübt hätten, damit die Staatschefs dem Treffen fernblieben. Entsprechend blieben treue US-Verbündete wie Ägyptens Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed VI. von Marokko oder Kronprinz Abdallah von Saudi-Arabien zu Hause. Auch der neue Liebling des Westens, Muammar al Ghaddafi aus Libyen, ließ sich nicht blicken. Washington hatte indes informell angefragt, ob man einen Beobachter schicken dürfe, war jedoch ausgeladen worden.
Seit zwei Jahren hatte Brasiliens Regierung das Treffen vorbereitet, das sich in ihre Strategie einfügt, Allianzen unter den Entwicklungsländern gegen die Dominanz der Weltwirtschaft durch die USA und die EU zu schmieden. Ziel der Tagung war es unter anderem, die Politik in den Verhandlungen innerhalb der Welthandelsorganisation WTO zu koordinieren und die wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen den beiden Regionen zu fördern. Gegenwärtig hat das Handelsvolumen zwischen ihnen einen Umfang von zehn Milliarden US-Dollar pro Jahr, wovon allein acht Milliarden auf Brasilien entfallen. Dessen Außenminister Mario Vilalva hofft, daß der Warenaustausch zwischen Lateinamerika und der arabischen Welt 2007 bereits 15 Milliarden US-Dollar umfassen könnte.
Brasiliens Präsident nutzte die Gelegenheit, um die Industriestaaten erneut für ihre protektionistische Agrarpolitik anzugreifen. Seine Regierung tritt für die Liberalisierung der Agrarmärkte und den Abbau der Subventionen ein, die sich in den Industriestaaten auf insgesamt zirka 269 Milliarden Euro pro Jahr belaufen. Deren Wegfall und die Aufhebung würde den brasilianischen Großgrundbesitzern und großen Plantagenunternehmen in einigen anderen Entwicklungsländern wie den Philippinen oder Malaysia den Absatz ihrer Produkte im Norden erleichtern. Kleinbauern gehören hingegen in vielen Staaten in Nord wie Süd zu den eifrigsten Gegnern der Liberalisierung und fordern, daß das Agrarabkommen ganz aus der WTO herausgenommen wird.
Die Abschlußerklärung des Gipfels schweigt sich allerdings zu dieser Frage aus, über die es offenbar keine Einigkeit gab. Allerdings verpflichten sich die WTO-Mitglieder unter den in Brasilia Versammelten, den Staaten, die noch nicht aufgenommen wurden, bei einem raschen Beitritt zu helfen. Außerdem wird »die Wichtigkeit« hervorgehoben, »daß der nächste Generalsekretär der WTO aus einem Entwicklungsland kommt, um deren Beteiligung an der Leitung der Organe des multilateralen Systems zu erhöhen«.
Diese Erklärung ist eine indirekte Unterstützung des uruguayischen Diplomaten Carlos Pérez del Castillo, der mit dem Franzosen Pascal Lamy um den WTO-Chef-Posten konkurriert. Lamy, der der Sozialistischen Partei angehört, aber in Sachen Welthandel ein beinharter Neoliberaler ist, war lange Zeit EU-Handelskommissar. Er ist mit der WTO bestens vertraut, da er jahrelang im Auftrag der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten die Verhandlungen geführt hat. Angesprochen auf die Mauscheleien in kleinen Runden, die die Mehrheit der Staaten von den Verhandlungen effektiv ausschließt, den sogenannten Green-Room-Gesprächen, hatte er einst 1999 in Seattle vor der Presse geäußert, es gäbe nun einmal einen gewissen Widerspruch zwischen Demokratie und Effizienz. Sein Verhandlungsstil ließ keinen Zweifel daran, daß er letzterer den Vorzug gibt.
In den kommenden Wochen wird sich entscheiden, ob der Kandidat der Europäer demnächst seine ganz spezielle Vorstellungen vom Völkerrecht noch besser umsetzen kann. Am Montag wurden am Sitz der WTO in Genf die abschließenden Konsultationen unter den 148 Mitgliedsstaaten begonnen. Die Entscheidung soll bis Ende des Monats gefällt sein. Der amtierende Generaldirektor Supachai Panitchpakdi tritt am 31. August ab. Der Thailänder war in der zehnjährigen Geschichte der WTO der erste Generalsekretär, der nicht aus einem Industrieland kam, was auch der Grund ist, weshalb man ihm nur eine halbe Amtsperiode zugestand.
Im Verlauf ihres Treffens haben die 34 südamerikanischen und arabischen Regierungen in Brasilia auch Israels Besatzungspolitik sowie den Terrorismus einhellig verurteilt, und zugleich das Widerstandsrecht von Nationen gegen ausländische Besatzung betont. Der nächste gemeinsame Gipfel soll 2007 in Argentiniens Hauptstadt Buenos Aires stattfinden.
Aus: junge Welt, 13. Mai 2005
D o k u m e n t a t i o n
SOUTH AMERICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SUMMIT
By invitation of Mr. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, that was welcomed by the Arab and South American States, the Heads of State and Government of the South American and Arab Countries gathered in Brasilia on May, 10 and 11, 2005, with the purpose of strengthening bi-regional relations, increasing cooperation and establishing a partnership to pursue development, justice and international peace according to the following:
that they share the objective of drawing up an agenda for sustainable economic and social development to be pursued bi-regionally in a coordinated way through the relevant regional and international fora.
that, with a view of promoting peace, security and stability of the world, the cooperation between the two regions should be guided by a commitment to multilateralism and respect for International Law, the observance of human rights and International Humanitarian Law; to disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as other weapons of mass destruction; to the pursuit of sustainable development alongside social justice, in particular to the eradication of hunger and poverty; and to the protection of the environment.
full compliance with and respect for the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, the peaceful settlement of all international, regional and bilateral conflicts and issues in accordance with International Law and the Charter of the United Nations and, inter alia, through established diplomatic channels including direct negotiations and referral, when appropriate, to the International Court of Justice.
their commitment to the non-selective implementation of UN resolutions and state their opposition to unilateral measures and illegal sanctions against States. In this regard stress their adherence to the objectives and principles of the United Nations Charter, in particular to the prohibition to the use of force or threat to use force in international relations.
the importance of confidence-building and mutual understanding for the peaceful coexistence of nations, acknowledging, in this context, the dimensions of globalization and the importance of preserving national identity and the respect for cultural diversity as well as the role played by cultural exchange and dialogue among civilizations in the construction of a world where tolerance and inclusiveness prevail. In that respect, they also support recent initiatives such as the proposed “Alliance of Civilizations”, geared to promoting cultural and political dialogue among civilizations and the initiatives of the State of Qatar concerning the dialogue between civilizations and religions.
international efforts and mechanisms aiming at eradicating hunger and poverty and promoting development, especially the International Solidarity Fund that has been adopted by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 265/56 and the initiative “Action Against Hunger and Poverty”, which resulted in the New York Declaration of 20th September 2004. They urge governments, international and regional organizations and civil society to exert efforts –worldwide – to identify possible additional sources of financing for development.
the importance of broad participation at the highest levels of all concerned parties in the second phase of the World Summit on Information Society which will be held in Tunisia from 16 to 18 November 2005, in recognition of the importance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the contemporary world, its positive impact on promoting cooperation among countries and contribution towards reducing the digital divide among them as well as enhancing their stability.
the preeminent right of States to their natural resources enshrined in various United Nations resolutions as well as the sovereign rights of peoples to dispose of such resources in their best interest. In this regard, they ratify the right of states to set forth the contributions they deem more equitable, as well as coordinate policies in the defense of fair prices for their agricultural exports and reject all discriminatory and protectionist measures.
2. Strengthening Bi-Regional Cooperation, Multilateral Relations, Peace and Security
2.1 Underline the importance of respect for international law and compliance with the Charter of the United Nations with regard, in particular, to the sovereignty of states and to the enhancement of the role of the United Nations and the Security Council for maintaining international peace and security. Also agree that diplomacy is the most adequate means for achieving this objective.
2.2 Reaffirm the need to fight the threats to international peace and security in compliance with the Charter of the United Nations and the legal instruments to which they are Parties.
2.3 Welcome the fact that the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco) is in force for countries of South America. Stress the importance of the treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba establishing nuclear- weapon-free zones, as well as the Antarctic Treaty, to, inter alia, achieve a world entirely free of nuclear weapons.
2.4 Reiterate their positions of principle on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction as well as their deep concern over the slow pace towards nuclear disarmament. They also reaffirm the illegitimacy of the use or the threat to use nuclear weapons by any state and stress the importance of security assurances for non-nuclear states, and, in this regard, the need for effective movement towards universal adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and progress towards universality of other relevant multilaterally negotiated agreements in the areas of disarmament and non-proliferation.
2.5 Reaffirm the importance of coordination within the multilateral disarmament fora in order to advance common positions regarding the progress of the international community towards achieving full nuclear disarmament.
2.6 Reaffirm that regional security and stability in the Middle East require that the whole region be free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. In this context, they call upon all parties concerned as well as the international community to take practical and urgent measures for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon free zone in the Middle East. Reaffirm the importance of the accession of all countries of the region without exception to the NPT and the placement of all their nuclear facilities under comprehensive IAEA safeguards, in realizing the goal of universal adherence to the Treaty in the Middle East. They also express their support for the Arab Initiative calling for the establishment of a Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone in the Middle East.
2.7 Recall that to fulfill its role, the United Nations requires a broad and integral reform, especially concerning the General Assembly, the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council, to render each of these organs more efficient, democratic, transparent and representative according to their respective nature and functions and the purpose for which they were created.
2.8 Reaffirm the need to reach a just, durable and comprehensive peace in the Middle East on the basis of the principle of land for peace and relevant resolutions of the Security Council and of the General Assembly of the United Nations, in particular Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973) of the Security Council, as well as the Madrid Framework and the "Arab Peace Initiative" that ensures the realization of security for all countries in the region. They also highlight the necessity of the full implementation of the “Road Map”. Reaffirm the need for the materialization of the legitimate national rights of the Palestinian people, and for the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1515 (2003), and the establishment of the independent Palestinian State, based on the 1967 lines, living side by side with the State of Israel, and the withdrawal of Israel from all occupied Arab territories to the lines of 4th of June 1967, and the dismantling of the Settlements including those in East Jerusalem. They duly take into account the advisory opinion rendered on 9th July 2004 by the International Court of Justice concerning the "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory", and call upon all parties concerned to comply with the said advisory opinion.
2.9 Concerned with the continuation of tension, violence, military attacks and acts of terror that are taking place in the Middle East, which put regional and world peace at risk, reaffirm their support to the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations and other actors of the international community in favor of resuming the peace process and call upon the concerned parties to carry out efforts to support a negotiation process based on the principles and fundamental norms of international law.
2.10 Emphasize the importance of respecting the unity, sovereignty and independence of Iraq and of not interfering in its internal affairs; respect the will of the Iraqi people in deciding freely their future, as expressed through the general elections in 30th January 2005, which were perceived as a major breakthrough towards a peaceful transition of power for establishing a constitutional and federal (if so decided by the Iraqi people) democratic government, along with the completion of the political process. Reaffirm their support to the elected transitional Iraqi government, and urge the international community to provide the support to the government in its efforts in the current process for the stability and construction in the country. Condemn the terrorist operations which target the civilian, the infra-structure and the democratic process. And reaffirm the pivotal role of the United Nations, and also the need for a greater role for the League of Arab States in the reconstruction of Iraq and the rebuilding of its institutions.
2.11 Express deep concern with regard to unilateral sanctions imposed on Syria by the government of the United States of America and consider that the so-called Syria Accountability Act violates principles of International Law and constitutes a transgression against the objectives and principles of the United Nations thereby establishing a serious precedent as regards dealing with independent states.
2.12 Affirm the territorial integrity of Sudan and unity of its people and call upon all concerned parties to support efforts towards realizing comprehensive peace, reconstruction and development in that country; and welcome the steps taken by the Sudanese Government in facilitating international assistance to the humanitarian crisis in Darfour and express their keen interest that the Arab League and the African Union undertake in this respect.
2.13 Welcome the achievements of the Somali national reconciliation process and express their support for the constitutional institutions that ensued, as well as the ongoing efforts to restore peace and stability as a necessity for the reconstruction and the peaceful democratic transformation of Somalia.
2.14 Call upon Iran Islamic Republic for a positive response to the United Arab Emirates initiative to reach a peaceful settlement for the three UAE islands question (Tonb Alkobra, Tonb Alsoukra and Abou Moussa) through dialogue and direct negotiations, in accordance with the United Nations Charter and International Law.
2.15 The Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries call on the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to resume negotiations in order to reach, as soon as possible, a peaceful, fair and lasting solution to the sovereignty dispute about the Malvinas Question, according to the relevant U.N. Resolutions. They also express that the inclusion of the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands as associated territories to Europe in the Annex II related to Title IV “Association of Overseas Countries and Territories” of Part III of the Constitutional Treaty of the European Union is not in accordance with the existence of the sovereignty controversy about these islands.
2.16 Emphasize the importance of combating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations through an active and efficient international cooperation, within the United Nations and the concerned regional organizations, based on respect for the objectives and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and in strict compliance with International Law and Human Rights principles. They also reaffirm the importance of enhanced cooperation and coordination in the exchange of information and expertise and in the development of competent organs specialized in combating terrorism. They call for holding an international conference under the auspices of the United Nations to study this phenomenon and to define the terrorist crime. They take note of the recommendations adopted by the Counter-Terrorism International Conference hosted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh on 5-8\2\2005, which represents a comprehensive approach to counter the phenomenon of terrorism. They support the proposal made by H.R.H. Abdullah Ben Abdul Aziz, the Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the establishment of an International Counter-Terrorism Center.
2.17 Reaffirm their refusal of foreign occupation and recognize the right of states and peoples to resist foreign occupation in accordance with the principles of international legality and in compliance with international humanitarian law.
2.18 Welcome the initiative of the State of Qatar and the High Commission for Human Rights for the State of Qatar to host the United Nations Centre for Human Rights for Western Asia and the Arab Region.
2.19 Recognize the essential role of international cooperation in addressing the global problems of illicit drugs and related crimes. Express their determination to ensure a balanced, multilateral, inclusive and non-selective approach towards tackling this issue, based on the principle of joint responsibility, and subject to national law.
2.20 Agree to work together in multilateral fora in order to promote concerted actions by the international community to fulfill the millennium development goals established by the United Nations Millennium Summit. Likewise, declare their will to coordinate efforts in order to accomplish the full implementation of the Doha Agenda as well as the reinforcement of the multilateral trade system, which should be fair and based on rules that facilitate the equitable integration of developing countries into the world economy.
2.21 On the occasion of the Summit of Heads of State and Government held in Brasilia, the Arab and South American countries agree to support the candidacies of Peru and Qatar to non-permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council during the period 2006-2007.
3. Cultural Cooperation
3.1 Emphasize the importance of cultural interaction amongst peoples to enrich human civilization, and recognize that the Summit of South American-Arab Countries is an opportunity to enhance mutual understanding between the peoples of both regions and their cultures, and in this respect, express their appreciation for the positive role of South American nationals of Arab descent in fostering relations between the two regions.
3.2 Reaffirm the growing importance of culture as a bridge amongst peoples and as an economic activity to promote development and mutual cooperation.
3.3 Acknowledge the need to preserve their respective cultural identities and to disseminate amongst themselves the most relevant aspects of their cultural heritage. In this respect, decide to promote mechanisms for cultural exchange that cover the whole range of artistic production, such as film festivals, art exhibitions, popular and classical music concerts, and other expressions of cultural manifestations rooted in the traditions of their peoples.
3.4 Welcome the recommendations of the Cultural Seminar that was held in Marrakech in parallel with the meeting of South American and Arab Foreign Ministers and also welcome the Moroccan initiative to host the South American Research Institute.
3.5 Decide, in this context, to convene a bi-regional meeting of experts that will select titles from the Arabic and official languages of the South American countries, to be reciprocally translated, with a view to the establishment of a future South American-Arab Library.
3.6 Welcome the Algerian invitation to host a Ministerial meeting to examine the cultural aspects and the follow up of the recommendations concerning cultural cooperation between the Arab and South American countries embodied in the Summit Declaration.
3.7 Welcome the Syrian invitation to hold a Seminar for the establishment of the Arab – South American Library mentioned in the Declaration. The Seminar will be held in the city of Aleppo (2-3 October 2005).
3.8 Affirm the importance of promoting cooperation and exchange in the audiovisual area, in order to disseminate their respective cultures and languages in a more dynamic way.
3.9 Decide to promote cultural exchange programs, interaction between promoters of culture in both regions, as well as to encourage private sector endeavors in cultural investments, so that the realities of both regions can find appropriate and direct channels of dissemination amongst their respective societies.
3.10 Decide to promote educational and academic cooperation through the granting of scholarships and exchange of visits of university professors, especially in the field of language teaching as well as other activities, such as the organization of conferences and seminars on topics of common interest.
3.11 Acknowledge the relevance and diversity of the cultural heritage of their countries and the need to preserve it; to this effect, decide to promote technical cooperation in the areas of archaeological excavation of historical monuments and works of art and their restoration, also fostering cooperation in the prevention of smuggling of antiquities and heritage.
3.12 Agree on the necessity to promote joint cultural production and exchange of experts between South American and Arab countries, with a view to establishing a large-scale project for the protection of human heritage and the spread of the culture of peace.
3.13 Agree to foster exchange programs in the field of sports as a means of bringing closer together the younger generations of both regions.
4. Economic Cooperation
4.1 Affirm that peace, security and stability in their regions constitute the basic foundation for economic prosperity and social development and declare their determination to cooperate amongst themselves in all fields, inter alia, in the settling of those disputes that have a direct impact thereon, as well as with other international parties in order to increase participation of the Arab and South American regions in the global economic decision making process.
4.2 Commit themselves to intensify the coordination of their positions in the economic and commercial fora in order to discuss common issues in accordance with the objectives of this declaration. In this respect, reaffirm their commitment to strengthen the economic and social institutions of the United Nations in order to promote a broad and ambitious international economic, social and development agenda, and to implement the relevant resolutions adopted in the main conferences of the United Nations.
4.3 Stress their commitment to protect intellectual property, recognizing that intellectual property protection should not prevent developing countries from access to basic science and technology, and from taking measures to promote national development, particularly concerning public health policies.
5. International Trade
5.1 Agree that international trade is a means to promote economic development, create job opportunities, increase income, reduce poverty and improve standards of living and recognize that, not withstanding the expansion and vigor of commercial flows throughout the last decades, equitable gains have not been fully attained, especially by the small and vulnerable economies, as far as development is concerned, due to asymmetries of the rules and distortions of international trade, which widen the gap between developed and developing countries.
5.2 Affirm that a rules-based, transparent, non-discriminatory and fair multilateral trading system is fundamental for developing countries to benefit from globalization. In this spirit, reaffirm their support for the strengthening of the World Trade Organization and for a successful conclusion of the negotiations for the implementation of the Doha Development Agenda benefiting the developing countries, including sectors in which they are more competitive.
5.3 Express their common support to ensure that all the applicant States to accession to the WTO participating in this Summit may accede in a satisfactory and expedient manner to that Organization.
5.4 Recognizing the importance of the interaction between the Arab and South American countries, affirm that this interaction has an essential role in the multilateral trade negotiations round in achieving positive results that ensure that international trade takes into account the impact on development and becomes an effective instrument to reduce the inequalities between developed and developing countries as well as a key factor for the improvement and well-being of their societies. Also emphasize the need for the elimination of the present distortions in the multilateral trading system, particularly in agriculture, which prevent developing countries from benefiting from their comparative advantages.
5.5 Decide to support the requests of regional organizations in their respective regions, to obtain, according to the rules and procedures of WTO, the capacity of an observer in relevant WTO bodies.
5.6 Declare their special support for the role UNCTAD plays as the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development, and the interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investments and sustainable development, as emphasized in the Sao Paulo Consensus and the G-77 Ministerial Declaration, both documents agreed upon at the XI UNCTAD, in São Paulo, June 2004.
6. International Financial System
6.1 Reaffirm the necessity of promoting reforms in the structure of the international financial system in order to support the efforts of developing countries towards the achievement of economic growth with social equity. Recognize that these reforms should comprise the development of more adequate instruments for the prevention and management of financial crises, identification and implementation of new mechanisms to ensure the sustainability of financial flows and to guarantee a more prominent role for developing countries within the decision making process of multilateral financial organizations.
6.2 Express their concern regarding the volatility of international financial markets. Consider that further reform efforts should be exerted within international fora, so that developed and developing countries would better cooperate to enhance common understanding on key international financial issues. Agree that further progress, in particular through the establishment of innovative financial mechanisms, is required to support development projects, policies and programs adopted by developing countries, without affecting their economies.
6.3 Emphasize the importance of stable and continuous financial resources for the promotion of economic and social development, particularly in the areas of infrastructure and the eradication of poverty and hunger. Stress in particular the need for the multilateral financial institutions to recognize that the public expenditures in the social field and infrastructure should be treated as investments and not as public indebtedness.
7. Sustainable Development
7.1 Reiterate their commitment to the principles and objectives stated in the main multilateral documents concerning sustainable development, such as the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the Agenda 21, adopted at the 1992 Rio Conference, as well as to the implementation of the Plan of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg in 2002.
7.2 Welcome the success of the XII Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, during which issues relevant to both regions were discussed, such as water resources, sanitary drainage and human settlements, and their implications for health care, poverty reduction and fluctuations in consumption and production patterns.
7.3 Stress the need for developed countries to fulfill their commitments regarding the financing of development, the transfer of technology and the expansion of market access for exports from developing countries, in such a manner that contributes to the achievement of the sustainable development objectives agreed upon by the international community.
7.4. Note with appreciation the existence of initiatives from both regions addressing environmental issues and sustainable development, and express their shared interest to enhance cooperation and the exchange of experiences in the implementation of those initiatives. Highlight the need for effective measures in international cooperation to reduce vulnerability of countries to natural disasters.
7.5 Recognize further the importance of the multilateral agreements and procedures agreed by the international community in order to protect the climate system, the ozone layer and biodiversity, and call on all United Nations member states and Specialized Agencies to actively participate in those endeavors.
7.6 Express their deep concern regarding the disposal of chemical waste, which results in environmental pollution, wealth destruction and serious danger to human life, in violation of international conventions regarding environment protection.
7.7 Both regions have a long history of dedication to issues that comprise the ever-growing international environmental agenda, particularly in striving to promote the actions set out under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. In this light, they welcome the recent entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol.
8. Development of South-South Cooperation
8.1 Emphasize the importance of South-South cooperation, and recognize the need for both regions to benefit from the many cooperation opportunities available for Arab and South American countries in the economic, social, technical, scientific and cultural fields, and stress that the wealth and diversity of their societies favor the strengthening of their interrelations.
8.2 Welcome Qatar’s initiative to convene the Second South Summit in Doha (12-16 June 2005) emphasizing the importance of active participation of leaders in the Summit, that may lead to strengthening South-South cooperation in different domains.
8.3 Recognize that fostering the integration of their economies, and realizing the broad potentialities for the increase of bi-regional flows of trade will be favorable to their peoples. Decide to study all means of promoting bi-regional trade. Highlight the importance of advancing the processes of integration within the respective regions, taking into account the asymmetries of national economies as well as the special needs of small and vulnerable economies and the restrictions that affect them, as is the case, of landlocked developing countries.
8.4 Acknowledge the common interest on bi-regional mechanisms for investment and partnership in strategic sectors, such as energy, telecommunications and transportation, as a lever for development.
8.5 Express the necessity of taking the appropriate measures for strengthening the bi-regional economic and trade relations, including the identification of mechanisms for cooperation between the competent agencies on river, maritime and air transport, such as the Memorandum of Understanding concluded between the Arab Association for Civil Aviation and the Latin American Civil Aviation Commission and the importance of activating those mechanisms. Affirm the need to undertake the necessary steps to promote cooperation in the tourism field, inter alia, through the promotion of interregional tourism, including increased participation in fairs and the organization of joint promotional events.
8.6 Agree to increase efforts towards a systematic dissemination of updated data on their countries in relation to trade, investment and tourism opportunities, through the establishment of semi-permanent fairs, the conclusion of agreements on cooperation between agencies in charge of promoting exports and investment, the establishment of entrepreneurial missions and convening joint seminars. Express their interest in exchanging experience and knowledge contributing to the development of the existing expertise in the institutions of the Arab and South American countries.
8.7 Recognize the great importance of South-South trade as a dynamic complement to the multilateral trade system in promoting competitiveness and growth in developing countries’ economies and welcome the recent launching of the third round of commercial negotiations within the framework of the Global System of Trade Preferences Agreement. Call upon all participants to make commercially significant concessions during the aforementioned round, with a view to further promoting and expanding South-South trade.
8.8 Affirm that private and business sectors should play a major role in the effective implementation of this Declaration in relevant sectors of trade and investment, and that their governments will take all possible measures to facilitate and enhance this role.
9. Cooperation in Science and Technology
9.1 Reaffirm the understanding that South-South cooperation is a low cost and highly effective mechanism that may efficiently contribute to the development of capacities in South American and Arab countries.
9.2 Express their shared aim of increasing scientific and technological cooperation between the two regions, taking into consideration the accumulated knowledge and experience in regions, the existing complementarities and the potential for innovation. Emphasize the urgent need for coordinating cooperation programs in the eminent universities and research centers in both regions and promoting exchange of experts, researchers and university professors. Declare their willingness to identify financial mechanisms for the implementation of a Scientific and Technological Development Program and hence specify – for launching the program – the following areas that were the outcome of the Seminar on Arid Lands and Water Resources (Fortaleza, Brazil, September 2004): (i) Desertification and Semi-Arid Lands; (ii) Management of Water Resources; (iii) Irrigated Agriculture; (iv) Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering; (v) Climate Forecast; (vi) Soil Dressing; (vii) Cattle Herd Raising.
9.3 Recognize their shared interest in intensifying the exchange of information and expertise in the field of irrigated agriculture in order to increase knowledge of efficient systems of irrigation that allow better use of investment; express their intention to enhance the exchange of information and expertise in the use of hydro climatic models for forecasting important hydrological variables, such as river discharge.
9.4 Stress the importance of initiatives aimed at developing technological innovation and integrated management of water resources. In this sense, identify a framework for bi-regional cooperation including: (i) development of efficient irrigation equipment; (ii) promotion of urban sanitation and sewage treatment adequate to the needs of each country; (iii) control of waste and leaks in public supply systems; (iv) development of domestic appliances in order to reduce water consumption; (v) use of sanitary equipment for the rational use and reuse of water.
9.5 Express interest in the Sustainable and Decentralized Desalinized Water Supply Process, since it is necessary for the subsistence of populations in isolated communities. Emphasize the intention to establish cooperation in reverse osmosis technology, which produces high quality water from a sanitary and organoleptic perspective.
9.6 Recall the importance of livestock breeding in the promotion of food security and emphasize the need to disseminate among concerned communities, knowledge and use of suitable technology for the genetic improvement and productivity of stocks.
9.7 Stress the need to promote cooperation on the areas of desertification and semi-arid lands and use of Satellite Images, in order to assess current situation of areas in process of desertification and propose adequate alternatives for sustainable development that takes into consideration environmental, social and economic aspects.
9.8 Stress the importance of fostering cooperation between scientific and research centers in both regions to produce affordable technologies for water desalinization that would ensure their expansion for development purposes, including agriculture.
9.9 Emphasize the need for developing bi-regional cooperation in the domain of energy and for identifying the channels of communication and cooperation in all related matters in such a manner that the cooperation will contribute to maximizing energy benefits for the economic and social development of their countries.
9.10 Express their commitment to intensify efforts to accelerate the development, transfer and utilization of technology with the aim of achieving energy and production efficiency.
10. Information Society
10.1 Reaffirm their commitment to building up an inclusive and development-oriented Information Society, as set out in the Declaration of Principles and in the Plan of Action of the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on Information Society.
10.2 Consider that information and communication technologies may offer an opportunity for overcoming the hurdles to progress and its application will yield high social impacts and constitute essential tools for achieving the Millennium Goals for Development. Keeping that in mind, decide to exert further efforts towards realizing coordination within the international fora in particular at the Second phase of the World Summit on Information Society in Tunis – (16-18/11/2005), in order to bridge the digital divide in its various political, economic, social and scientific dimensions and call for an intensive presence and active participation therein.
11. Action against Hunger and Poverty
11.1 State their profound concern regarding world hunger and poverty which aggravate the spread of diseases, reduce work potential, decrease children’s cognitive abilities, disorganize societies and reinforce the factors that impair the promotion of economic growth with social justice in developing countries.
11.2 Reaffirm that the full and prompt implementation of the Millennium Development Goals must be a priority for all developed and developing countries and express their firm political determination to work together towards the expansion of international cooperation, as well as to mobilize political support to generate additional funds to those agreed upon at the Conferences of Monterrey and Johannesburg. To this end, underline their support for the on-going initiatives to identify innovative sources to finance development.
11.3 Emphasize the urgent need for identifying new sources of funding to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, especially with regard to the imperative of reducing poverty and hunger and promoting sustainable economic growth in the developing countries.
11.4 Recognize, in particular, the imperative of confronting hunger and poverty in the world not only as a goal in itself but also as a way to enhance security and stability of developing and developed countries alike. Emphasize, in this regard, the urgent need for identifying new sources of development financing and reiterate their support to all initiatives towards this goal.
11.5 Emphasize the importance of providing financial support and activate the World Solidarity Fund for Combating Poverty, which is a suitable mechanism for the reduction of poverty in the developing countries.
11.6 Welcome the political impetus generated at the meeting of world leaders to discuss innovative mechanisms to finance eradication of hunger and reduction of poverty, promoted by the President of Brazil, Mr. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, in New York, in September 2004, and call upon the governments who had not yet done so to join this endeavor.
11.7 Stress their willingness to join efforts in order to obtain at the 2005 review of the Millennium Development Goals, a substantial increase in the amount of public and private resources committed to assisting sustainable economic growth in developing countries.
11.8 Welcome the proposal to establish an International Humanitarian Fund, bearing in mind the ideas expressed on this matter during the International Conference on Financing for Development and at the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
11.9 Stress the importance of increasing coordination amongst all previously mentioned initiatives to avoid duplication of efforts.
12. Development and Social Issues
12.1 Urge donor countries to increase development assistance, to improve its quality and to make it more effective in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to implement their undertakings to provide financing for these aims and objectives.
12.2 Reiterate their support for cancellation of debts, as appropriate, for low-income countries, significant reduction thereof for middle-income countries, in order to allow for the mobilization of necessary financial resources in accordance with internationally agreed development objectives.
12.3 Recognize the need of joint actions in dealing with the phenomenon of migration in order to promote a positive approach to migration flows taking into account its impact on development and considering that international cooperation is essential to protect human rights of migrants and their families, in conformity with countries’ related laws.
12.4 Remark further that threats to international public health – particularly HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis and other epidemics – demand an active and generous support from the international community beyond limitations and restrictions derived from industrial and trade private interests.
12.5 Urge the mobilization of larger sources of funding for scientific and humanitarian cooperation to combat the AIDS epidemic, in particular affecting the populations of the countries of the African Continent.
12.6 Recognize that corruption weakens public and private institutions, erodes social values, undermines the rule of law and distorts economies and the allocation of resources for development. Therefore, pledge to intensify efforts to combat corruption and other unethical practices in the public and private sectors, strengthening a culture of transparency and ensuring more efficient public management.
12.7 Recognizing that the United Nations Convention against Corruption is a relevant global instrument to fight the phenomenon of corruption, call upon all states to sign or ratify it as appropriate in order to put it into force as soon as possible. Reaffirm that the international community should exert joint efforts against corruption aiming at eradicating it through comprehensive cooperation within the framework of applicable international treaties and instruments.
12.8 Urge to increase international support for cooperation to establish assistance directed to grant micro credits to micro, small and medium entrepreneurs in their countries, that will contribute to the achievement of an inclusive development process.
13. Mechanism for Cooperation
13.1 In order to ensure the follow up to the decisions contained in this Declaration, agree that:
The Second South American and Arab Countries Summit will take place in Morocco, in the second quarter of 2008;
- The next meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of South American and Arab Countries will be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 2007;
- Extraordinary meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs may be convened, as necessary;
- A meeting of High Officials of Ministries of Foreign Affairs will take place in November 2005, at the Headquarters of the Arab League, in Cairo.
13.2 Sectoral meetings at Ministerial level in the fields of trade, investment, transport, tourism, energy, rural development, culture, science and technology, among other sectors, may be convened to pursue programs for cooperation. To that effect, consultations will be carried out between the Chair and the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States and the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the South American Community of Nations.
13.3 Welcome the invitation by Saudi Arabia to attend the meeting between consumers and producers of energy, to be held in Riyadh, in the fourth quarter of 2005.
13.4 Decide to convene a meeting of Ministers in charge of economic affairs and related areas from both regions in order to follow up on the economic issues of this Declaration. In this context, they thank the Republic of Ecuador for hosting a meeting in Quito, on dates to be determined.
Brasília, 10-11th May 2005
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