UNO: Todesopfer in den Kämpfen in Südsudan gehen in die Tausende
UN-Sicherheistrat verabschiedet Resolution und verdoppelt Truppen - Ban Ki-moon: Es kann keine militärische Lösung geben
Die Gewalt in Südsudan hat in den letzten Tagen neue Dimensionen erreicht. Nach UN-Einschätzung wurden bei den Kämpfen weitaus mehr Menschen getötet als bisher angenommen. Aus seiner Sicht bestehe "absolut kein Zweifel" daran, dass die Zahl der Toten "in die Tausende" gehe, sagte der stellvertretende UNMISS-Leiter Toby Lanzer in Juba. Bislang wurde die Opferzahl im Südsudan mit 500 angegeben. Zehntausende Menschen flüchteten vor der Gewalt in die UN-Lager, Hunderttausende weitere könnten in den Busch geflohen sein.
Der noch vor den Weihnachtsfeiertagen in New York zusammengerufene UN-Sicherheitsrat hat am Heiligen Abend (Dienstag, 24. Dez.) beschlossen, die Zahl der dortigen Blauhelmsoldaten nahezu zu verdoppeln. Der einstimmig verabschiedeten Resolution mit der Nummer 2132 (2013) zufolge wird die UN-Mission im Südsudan (UNMISS) von derzeit 7000 auf 12.500 Soldaten sowie von 900 auf mehr als 1323 Polizisten aufgestockt. Die verstärkte UN-Mission soll helfen, die Situation wieder in den Griff zu bekommen.
UN-Generalsekretär Ban Ki Moon räumte allerdings ein, dass sich die Truppe nicht "von heute auf morgen" verstärken ließe. Es sei daran gedacht, Kräfte aus anderen afrikanischen Missionen (z.B. Kongo, Côte d’Ivoire, Darfur) vorübergehend abzuziehen und nach Südsudan zu verlegen. Und selbst wenn die Verstärkung erfolgt sei, könne die UNO nicht "alle Zivilisten schützen". Die Konfliktparteien wurden dringend aufgerufen, ihre Feindseligkeiten einzustellen und an den Verhandlungstisch zu kommen. Ban betonte darüber hinaus, dass es keine militärische Lösung des Konflikts gäbe.
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir den Bericht des UN-News Centres über die jüngste Entwicklung sowie den vollen Text der verabschiedeten Resolution.
Security Council doubles UN peacekeeping force in South Sudan in face of spreading conflict
24 December 2013 – The Security Council today authorized almost doubling the United Nations peacekeeping force in strife-torn South Sudan to nearly 14,000 in the face of a rapidly deteriorating security and humanitarian crisis that has left hundreds of civilians dead and tens of thousands of others driven from their homes.
As requested by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, the Council unanimously approved a temporary increase in the strength of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to up to 12,500 military and 1,323 police from a current combined strength of some 7,000, through the transfer of units if necessary from other UN forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Darfur, Abyei, Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia.
In a resolution passed under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which authorizes the use of force, the 15-member Council demanded an immediate cessation of hostilities and the immediate opening of a dialogue between the rival factions, and condemned the fighting and violence targeted against civilians and specific ethnic and other communities as well as attacks and threats against UNMISS.
Tensions within South Sudan, the world’s youngest country which only gained independence in 2011 after seceding from Sudan, burst out into open conflict on 15 December when President Salva Kiir's Government said soldiers loyal to former deputy president Riek Machar, dismissed in July, launched an attempted coup. Mr. Kiir belongs to the Dinka ethnic group and Mr. Machar to the Lou Nuer.
Last week, 2,000 heavily armed assailants stormed an UNMISS base in Akobo, in restive Jonglei state, in a brazen attack that left some 20 Dinka civilians dead as well as two UN peacekeepers, with a third wounded, and which today’s resolution condemned in the strongest terms.
“I have consistently called on President Salva Kiir and opposition political leaders to come to the table and find a political way out of this crisis,” Mr. Ban told the Council at its meeting, citing reports of ethnically targeted violence, other extra-judicial killings and mass graves. “Whatever the differences, nothing can justify the violence that has engulfed their young nation.”
He stressed that there could be no military solution to the conflict, reiterating his determination to ensure that UNMISS has the means to carry out its central task of protecting civilians. “Attacks on civilians and the UN peacekeepers must cease immediately,” he said. “The United Nations will investigate reports of these incidents and of grave human rights violations and crimes against humanity. Those responsible will be held personally accountable. They should know the world is watching.”
The Council resolution demanded that all parties cooperate fully with UNMISS as it implements its mandate, in particular the protection of civilians, and stressed that efforts to undermine the mission’s ability to implement its mandate and attacks on UN personnel will not be tolerated.
Both in his address to the Council and at a later news conference Mr. Ban warned that even with ongoing support, the strengthening of UNMISS’s protective capabilities will not happen overnight.
“And even with additional capabilities, we will not be able to protect every civilian in need in South Sudan,” he said. “The parties are responsible for ending the conflict. This is a political crisis which requires a peaceful, political solution. In this season of peace, I urge the leaders of South Sudan to act for peace.
“Stop the violence. Start the dialogue. Save your proud and newly independent country. There is no time to lose.”
At a news conference today in Juba, the South Sudanese capital, Mr. Ban’s Special representative to the country Hilde Johnson pledged, as the Secretary-General himself has repeatedly done, that the UN will remain by the side of South Sudan’s people and that she hoped extra military assets including helicopters will soon arrive to increase UNMISS’s capabilities.
“I want to make it very clear that, although non-critical staff of the United Nations have relocated to Entebbe in Uganda, we are also increasing our staff in critical security related areas and we are reinforcing the bases that need reinforcement,” Ms. Johnson said.
She said that UNMISS was providing, as part of its protection-of-civilians mandate, shelter to approximately 45,000 people who have fled to UN compounds.
“We remain, we are undeterred and we will continue to implement our mandate. Now, the presence of the United Nations in South Sudan is greater than ever,” she said.
* UN News Centre, 24 December 2013; http://www.un.org
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir die am 24. Dezember 2013 vom UN-Sicherheitsrat einstimmig verabschiedete Resolution 2132 (2013), in der Fassung, die vom UN-News Centre am 25. Dezember veröffentlicht wurde.
Resolution 2132 (2013)
The Security Council,
Expressing grave alarm and concern regarding the rapidly deteriorating security and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan resulting from the political dispute and subsequent violence caused by the country’s political leaders,
Recalling its 17 December and 20 December 2013 press statements, and previous resolutions 1996 (2011), 2046 (2012), 2057 (2012), and 2109 (2013), and acknowledging the 23 December 2013 letter from the Secretary-General (S/2013/758),
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Republic of South Sudan,
Condemning the fighting and targeted violence against civilians and specific ethnic and other communities occurring across the country that have resulted in hundreds of deaths and casualties and tens of thousands of internally displaced persons,
Further condemning reported human rights violations and abuses by all parties, including armed groups and national security forces, and emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law must be held accountable,
Welcoming the strengthening of the human rights investigation capacity of the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) with the support of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,
Commending the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Ministerial Group’s initiative, as supported by the United Nations and African Union, in seeking to open the dialogue and mediate between key leaders, and urging all parties to cooperate with this initiative,
Commending the active steps taken by UNMISS to implement its mandate and give refuge in its premises and other forms of assistance to the civilians caught in the fighting,
Condemning in the strongest terms attacks on and threats made to UNMISS personnel and United Nations facilities, demanding that all parties respect the inviolability of United Nations premises and to refrain from any violence against those gathered at United Nations facilities, and in this regard reiterating its condemnation of the attack on the UNMISS camp in Akobo, on 19 December, which resulted in the death of two Indian peacekeepers and the wounding of another, as well as at least 20 other casualties of individuals seeking UNMISS protection,
Determining that the situation in South Sudan continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Calls for an immediate cessation of hostilities and the immediate opening of a dialogue;
2. Demands that all parties cooperate fully with UNMISS as it implements its mandate, in particular the protection of civilians, and stresses that efforts to undermine UNMISS’ ability to implement its mandate and attacks on United Nations personnel will not be tolerated;
3. Endorses the recommendation made by the Secretary-General to temporarily increase the overall force levels of UNMISS to support its protection of civilians and provision of humanitarian assistance;
4. Decides, therefore, that given the urgent circumstances of the situation, UNMISS will consist of a military component of up to 12,500 troops of all ranks and of a police component, including appropriate Formed Police Units, of up to 1,323, requests that the Secretary-General keep the new levels of troops and police in UNMISS under continuous review, and requests that the Secretary-General report to the Council within 15 days on the steps taken to implement this resolution, and at least every 30 days thereafter;
5. Authorizes the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps to facilitate inter-mission cooperation and, if needed and subject to further Council consideration, complementary force and asset generation, and authorizes, in order to reach the new levels of troops and police within the overall troop ceiling set out in paragraph 4 on a temporary basis, appropriate transfer of troops, force enablers, and multipliers from other missions, in particular MONUSCO, UNAMID, UNISFA, UNOCI and UNMIL, subject to the agreement of the troop-contributing countries and without prejudice to the performance of the mandates of these United Nations missions;
6. Urges the concerned Member States to facilitate the deployment and redeployment to and from UNMISS, and encourages all Member States to respond to United Nations efforts to mobilize troops and resources;
7. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
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