Jahresbericht 2009 über Kinder in bewaffneten Konflikten veröffentlicht und dem UN-Sicherheitsrat übergeben / Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict
20 besonders schwere Fälle von Angriffen auf Schulen und andere Erziehungs- und Bildungseinrichtungen aufgelistet
Der Jahresbericht 2009 des UN-Generalsekretärs über Kinder in
bewaffneten Konflikten wurde am 22. April veröffentlicht und dem
Sicherheitsrat übergeben. In dem Bericht (Annual Report on Children and
Armed Conflict, 2009) werden 20 besonders schwere Fälle von Angriffen
auf Schulen und andere Erziehungs- und Bildungseinrichtungen
geschildert. Die Beispiele kommen aus Afghanistan, der
Zentralafrikanischen Republik, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo,
Kolumbien, Georgien, Haiti, Irak, Libanon, Myanmar, Nepal, den besetzten
Gebieten und Israel, Philippinen, Somalia und Sudan.
Der 51 Seiten starke Bericht trägt die Nummer A/63/785–S/2009/158 und
ist als pdf- Datei hier herunterzuladen:
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir (in Englisch)
die Presseerklärung von UNESCO zur Herausgabe des UN-Berichts,
die Einleitung des Jahresberichts (Abschnitt I),
die allgemeine Beschreibung von Fortschritten (Abschnitt II)
und die abschließenden Empfehlungen des Berichts (Abschnitt V).
Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict Documents Attacks on
24-04-2009 - Attacks on schools are among the grave violations covered
in the annual report of the UN Secretary-General to the Security Council
on Children and Armed Conflict, released on 22 April. The report
documents grave violations in 20 situations of concern.
In order to halt violations and ensure greater protection of children in
conflict situations, the Secretary-General recommends targeted measures
by the Security Council against repeat violators. He also encourages
national and international justice mechanisms to take strong actions in
the fight against impunity for crimes against children within their
These recommendations echo calls from participants at the UN General
Assembly debate on Education in Emergencies (New York, 18 March 2009)
for States to increase protection of education during conflict and to
regard attacks on schools as war crimes.
The Report specifically documents attacks on education in the following
Afghanistan: an escalation of incidents affecting the education sector,
including attacks on schools, students and teachers.
Central African Republic: grave violations against children, including
attacks on schools.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: recruitment of children from schools
in two territories and an increase of reports of attacks on schools and
Colombia: recruitment into armed groups from school reported.
Georgia: damage to schools due to escalation of conflict in August 2008.
Loss of school equipment and furniture was also reported both as a
result of military action and subsequent looting.
Haiti: students on their way to or from schools have been particularly
targeted by abductors.
Iraq: children’s access to education has been compromised by insecurity
and population movement.
Lebanon: children exposed to the threat of explosive remnants of war in
affected regions due to use of cluster munitions in residential areas,
villages, schools and agricultural lands.
Myanmar: concern is expressed over the Wa State Army managing and
running primary schools.
Nepal: abduction and killings of teachers and principals is reported.
Occupied Palestinian Territory and Israel: concerns that Hamas may have
used schools to launch rockets into Israel (December 2008 and January
2009); damage to schools and kindergartens by Hamas launched rockets;
raids and use of schools by IDF and Israeli settlers have resulted in
death of students and teachers. 7 schools destroyed and 157 government
schools damaged in Gaza in December 2008 and January 2009 hostilities.
Philippines: four cases of military occupation and use of schools as
temporary camps reported.
Somalia: recruitment of girls and boys from schools into armed groups.
Sudan: attacks on schools in Darfur.
General Assembly, Security Council
Children and armed conflict
Report of the Secretary-General (A/63/785–S/2009/158)
26 March 2009
1. The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council presidential
statement (S/PRST/2008/6), by which the Council requested me to submit a
on the implementation of its resolutions 1612 (2005), 1261 (1999), 1314
1379 (2001), 1460 (2003) and 1539 (2004) on children and armed conflict. The
report includes information on compliance with applicable international
law to end
the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict and other grave
being committed against children affected by armed conflict;
progress made in the implementation of the monitoring and reporting
and action plans to halt the recruitment and use of children, as well as
made in mainstreaming children and armed conflict issues in United Nations
peacekeeping and political missions; and a brief summary of the
conclusions of the
Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict, and of its
2. The report includes a proposal to strengthen the monitoring and
rape and other grave sexual violence against children. The Office of my
Representative has also identified the following emerging concerns in
relation to the
children and armed conflict agenda as key priority areas for action and
advocacy. These concerns include internally displaced children and their
risks for recruitment; terrorism and counter-terrorism measures and its
children; the accountability of child soldiers for acts committed during
conflict, and special protections accorded to them; control on the
transfer and use of
arms and ammunitions, particularly to countries where children are known
to be, or
may potentially be, recruited or used in hostilities; and measures to
sustainable reintegration of children affected by conflict.
3. The report covers compliance and progress in ending the recruitment
of children and other grave violations, including the killing and maiming of
children, rape and other grave sexual violence, abductions, attacks on
hospitals, and the denial of humanitarian access to children by parties
4. The preparation of the present report involved broad consultations
United Nations, in particular with the Task Force on Children and Armed
Headquarters, country-level task forces on monitoring and reporting,
and political missions and United Nations country teams, as well as with
Member States and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Country-level task
forces on monitoring and reporting, peacekeeping and political missions
Nations country teams are the primary sources of information for the report.
5. References to reports, cases and incidents in the present report refer to
information that is gathered, vetted and verified for accuracy. In
access to obtaining or independently verifying information received is
factors such as insecurity or access restrictions, it is qualified as such.
6. Pursuant to Security Council resolution 1612 (2005), in identifying the
situations that fall within the scope of her mandate, my Special
Children and Armed Conflict is guided by the criteria for determining
of an armed conflict found in international humanitarian law and
jurisprudence. In the performance of her mandate, my Special
adopted a pragmatic and cooperative approach to this issue, with a
emphasis, focusing on ensuring broad and effective protection for
and affected by conflict in situations of concern. Reference to a
situation of concern
is not a legal determination and reference to a non-State party does not
II. Information on compliance and progress in ending the
recruitment and use of children and other violations being
committed against children
7. The present report provides information on developments covering the
from September 2007 to December 2008, as well as some developments that have
extended beyond the reporting period. Reports of the Secretary-General
and armed conflict in Afghanistan, Burundi, Chad, the Democratic
Republic of the
Congo, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Uganda were also
submitted to the Security Council and its Working Group on Children and
Conflict during the reporting period.
8. Progress made by the parties listed in annexes I and II to the
and named in the body of my 2007 report (A/62/609-S/2007/757), have been
assessed with respect to whether they have ceased recruiting and using
whether they have refrained from committing other grave violations against
children. Progress made by the parties is also assessed with respect to
have engaged in dialogue with country-level task forces on monitoring and
reporting, as called for in Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and
(2005), and whether through that dialogue, or in the context of other
as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes or the
peace agreements, they have developed and implemented action plans to
end the use
of children and released all children from their ranks, and made specific
commitments to address other grave violations against children for which
9. Parties who fully comply with terms set forth in action plans and
verified measures to address other grave violations for which they have
to the satisfaction of the country-level task force on monitoring and
the Task Force on Children and Armed Conflict, will be considered for
from the annexes. Ongoing monitoring by the country-level task force on
monitoring and reporting is required to ensure the protection of
compliance with the undertakings given by parties that have been
it be determined that de-listed parties recruit and use children at a
later point in
time, or fail to allow continuous and unhindered access to the United
verification, they will be re-listed onto the annexes, and the Security
Council will be
alerted to the non-compliance.
161. It is recommended that the Security Council consider giving equal
children affected by armed conflict in all situations of concern listed
in the annexes
to my report, as well as other relevant situations of concern addressed
in my report.
162. While acknowledging the equal weight for all grave violations against
children, considering that children are particularly vulnerable to rape
violence in situations of armed conflict, as noted in the present and
and the culture of impunity prevails for such crimes, it is recommended
Security Council consider, at a minimum, expanding the criteria for the
my report to include parties that commit rape and other grave sexual
against children in armed conflict without prejudice to the possibility
expanding the criteria in the future to include other violations,
including, if possible,
intentional killing and maiming of children.
163. As addressing sexual violence is an important system-wide priority
United Nations, mechanisms and arrangements for monitoring such violations
should be strengthened. Country-level task forces under Security Council
1612 (2005) should include actors who monitor gender-based violations, and
modalities for data sharing and coordinated action, including on access
and remedies, should be developed between gender-based violence and child
protection actors. National capacity to address sexual violence should
164. The Security Council is encouraged to continue to insist that
situations of armed conflict listed in the annexes to my report prepare and
implement concrete time-bound action plans to halt the recruitment and
children in violation of international obligations applicable to them,
and to take
measures against any parties that fail to comply.
165. The Security Council is also encouraged to call upon parties in
armed conflict listed in the annexes to my report to undertake specific
and measures to address other violations and abuses committed against
which they are cited.
166. Concerned Member States should allow contact between the United Nations
and non-State parties to ensure the broad and effective protection of
situations of concern, including for the purposes of preparing action
plans to halt
recruitment and use of children and undertaking specific commitments and
to address all other grave violations committed against children. The
Council should encourage this. Such contact will not prejudice the
legal status of these non-State parties.
167. The Security Council is urged to ensure that systematic
established between its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict and the
relevant sanctions Committees and their expert groups in country
common concern. This may include the Working Group bringing to the
relevant sanctions Committees and their expert groups specific information
contained in my reports prepared in the framework of Security Council
1612 (2005) for any necessary action. In situations where there are no
sanctions committees, the Security Council is urged to consider means by
targeted measures may be applied against persistent perpetrators of
168. It is recommended that the Security Council ensure that specific
the protection of children continue to be included in all relevant
peacekeeping operations and political missions, including by means of the
deployment of child protection advisers. The need for, the number and
roles of and
the budget for child protection advisers should be systematically
assessed during the
preparation of each peacekeeping operation and political mission, and
concerns should be reflected in all mission planning instruments and
including technical assessment and review missions.
169. Given the regional dimension of some conflicts highlighted in this
relevant Member States, United Nations peacekeeping and political
United Nations country teams should establish appropriate strategies and
coordination mechanisms for information exchange and cooperation on
child protection concerns such as recruitment, release and reintegration
170. Member States should take strong and urgent action to bring to justice
individuals responsible for the recruitment and use of children in
applicable international law and other grave violations against children
national justice systems. The Security Council is encouraged to refer to the
International Criminal Court, for investigation and prosecution,
children in armed conflict that fall within its jurisdiction, and other
justice mechanisms should also prioritize accountability for crimes
171. Member States are urged to ensure that children who are accused of
under international law allegedly committed while they were associated
forces or groups are considered primarily as victims, and that they are
accordance with international law, and within a framework of restorative
172. States parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child are
strengthen national and international measures for the prevention of
children into armed forces or armed groups and their use in hostilities.
these include signing and ratifying the Optional Protocol to the
Convention on the
Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and
legislation that explicitly prohibits the recruitment of children into armed
forces/groups and their use in hostilities; exercising extraterritorial
order to strengthen the international protection of children against
taking measures to implement the recommendations of the Committee on the
of the Child; and submitting timely reports under the Optional Protocol
Committee on the Rights of the Child.
173. Effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes for
children is crucial for the well-being of all children associated with
and groups, and, as such, relevant Governments and donors should ensure
programmes receive timely and adequate resources and funding, and are
community-based for long-term sustainability. This is increasingly a
for durable peace and security.
174. The monitoring and reporting of violations against children need to be
supported with effective measures to prevent and respond to such
Security Council should continue to call upon relevant national and
actors to support and expand programmes to ensure that children who are
violations have access to appropriate services and response.
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Applicable international law relating to the rights and protection of
children in armed conflict
include, in particular, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and obligations
applicable under the
Additional Protocols thereto of 1977, the Convention on the Rights of
the Child of 1989, the
Optional Protocol thereto of 25 May 2000, and the amended Protocol II to
the Convention on
Prohibitions or Restriction on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons
Which May Be Deemed
to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects,
Organization Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate
Action for the
Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, the 1997 Convention on
the Prohibition of the
Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on
and the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
See, for example, common article 2 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions,
article 1 of Additional Protocol II of 1977 thereto; International
Committee of the Red Cross, J. PICTET (ed.),
Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (1958); and Prosecutor v.
Dusko Tadic, Case
No. IT-94, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
(2 October 1995).